Morse Code Conversion Problems

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#1 SillyLilly  Icon User is offline

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Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 27 August 2013 - 08:18 PM

I am working to complete a java project for an online class in which user-inputted English is converted to Morse Code and vice versa. Previously I was able to encode and decode for one character alone, but I need to be able to convert whole sentences. In attempt to fix this problem, I created a for loop, only for this error message (in both the morsetoEnglish and englishtoMorse methods:
error: cannot find symbol....for(int xyz = 0; xyz <= english.length; ++xyz symbol: variable length...location: variable english of type String. Here's what I have code-wise:
import java.util.Scanner;
import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;
public class Project1Array	{
	public static void main (String [] args)
	{
		int choice = 1;
		Scanner morseorenglish = new Scanner(System.in);
			System.out.println ("Choose either 1 or 2: (Type '1' for choice 1)");
			System.out.println ("(1) Translate your English sentence into morse code");
			System.out.println ("(2) Translate your morse code into an English sentence");
		choice = morseorenglish.nextInt();
		
		if (choice==1)
		{
			Scanner englishtomorse = new Scanner(System.in);
				System.out.println ("Please enter an original sentence in English.");
				String english = englishtomorse.nextLine();
			System.out.println (englishtoMorse(english));
		}
		else
		{
			Scanner morsetoenglish = new Scanner(System.in);
				System.out.println ("Please enter an original sentence in morse code.");
				String morse = morsetoenglish.nextLine();
			System.out.println (morsetoEnglish(morse));
			
		}
		
	}
	public static String englishtoMorse(String english) 
	{
		String[] alphabet = {"a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g", "h", "i", "j", "k", "l", "m",
			"n", "o", "p", "q", "r", "s", "t", "u", "v", "w", "x", "y", "z", " ", "1", "2",
			"3", "4", "5", "7", "8", "9", "0"};
		String a = ".- ";
		String b = "-... ";
		String c = "-.-/>/>/>. ";
		String d = "-.. ";
		String e = ". ";
		String f = "..-. ";
		String g = "--. ";
		String h = ".... ";
		String i = ".. ";
		String j = ".--- ";
		String k = "-.-/>/>/> ";
		String l = ".-.. ";
		String m = "-- ";
		String n = "-. ";
		String o = "--- ";
		String p = ".--. ";
		String q = "--.-/>/>/> ";
		String r = ".-. ";
		String s = "... ";
		String t = "- ";
		String u = "..- ";
		String v = "...- ";
		String w = ".-- ";
		String x = "-..- ";
		String y = "-.-/>/>/>- ";
		String z = "--.. ";
		String space = "| ";
		String code[] = { a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z };
		for(int xyz = 0; xyz <= english.length; ++xyz)
		{
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < alphabet.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(english.equals(alphabet[variable]))
          		System.out.println(code[variable]);
   			}
   		}
   		return " ";
	}
	public static String morsetoEnglish(String morse)
	{
		String[] alphabet = {"a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g", "h", "i", "j", "k", "l", "m",
			"n", "o", "p", "q", "r", "s", "t", "u", "v", "w", "x", "y", "z", " ", "1", "2",
			"3", "4", "5", "7", "8", "9", "0"};
		String a = ".- ";
		String b = "-... ";
		String c = "-.-/>/>/>. ";
		String d = "-.. ";
		String e = ". ";
		String f = "..-. ";
		String g = "--. ";
		String h = ".... ";
		String i = ".. ";
		String j = ".--- ";
		String k = "-.-/>/>/> ";
		String l = ".-.. ";
		String m = "-- ";
		String n = "-. ";
		String o = "--- ";
		String p = ".--. ";
		String q = "--.-/>/>/> ";
		String r = ".-. ";
		String s = "... ";
		String t = "- ";
		String u = "..- ";
		String v = "...- ";
		String w = ".-- ";
		String x = "-..- ";
		String y = "-.-/>/>/>- ";
		String z = "--.. ";
		String space = "| ";
		String code[] = { a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z };
		for(int xyz = 0; xyz <= morse.length; ++ xyz)
		{
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < code.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(code[variable].equals(morse))
       			System.out.println(alphabet[variable]);
   			}
   		}
   		return " "; 
	}
} 
      


Am I on the right track? Please explain how I can get rid of this error!

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#2 jon.kiparsky  Icon User is online

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 27 August 2013 - 08:30 PM

You've got an easy fix for this: use array lookup.

If you can convert a character to an integer between 0 and 25, you just need an array of Strings to represent your morse output, right?

You might know how to convert a char to an int in the right range. If not, it's a problem you ought to try to solve, because it's worth solving once in your life. Think about what a char is, and how it's represented in the machine.

Eventually, you'd use a map lookup to avoid that step, but for now let's do it the hard way, just for fun.

That being said, you've fallen victim to a gotcha: the length property of Strings is a method, while it's a public static constant for arrays. So english.length should be english.length(). This is a little silly, but that's how the language is implemented.

This post has been edited by jon.kiparsky: 27 August 2013 - 08:32 PM

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#3 SillyLilly  Icon User is offline

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 07:03 AM

Thanks for getting me out of the trap! So.... if I converted the chars to ints, the program would run and do all of the conversions? Maybe I did the wrong thing or not enough, but I tried to convert and had no more success in getting multiple english letters to converted to morse than before.
import java.util.Scanner;
import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;
public class Project1Array	{
	public static void main (String [] args)
	{
		int choice = 1;
		Scanner morseorenglish = new Scanner(System.in);
			System.out.println ("Choose either 1 or 2: (Type '1' for choice 1)");
			System.out.println ("(1) Translate your English sentence into morse code");
			System.out.println ("(2) Translate your morse code into an English sentence");
		choice = morseorenglish.nextInt();
		
		if (choice==1)
		{
			Scanner englishtomorse = new Scanner(System.in);
				System.out.println ("Please enter an original sentence in English.");
				String english = englishtomorse.nextLine();
			System.out.println (englishtoMorse(english));
		}
		else
		{
			Scanner morsetoenglish = new Scanner(System.in);
				System.out.println ("Please enter an original sentence in morse code.");
				String morse = morsetoenglish.nextLine();
			System.out.println (morsetoEnglish(morse));
			
		}
		
	}
	public static String englishtoMorse(String english) 
	{
		String[] alphabet = {A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
			V, W, X, Y, Z, " ", "1", "2",
			"3", "4", "5", "7", "8", "9", "0"};
		String a = ".- ";
		String b = "-... ";
		String c = "-.-/>. ";
		String d = "-.. ";
		String e = ". ";
		String f = "..-. ";
		String g = "--. ";
		String h = ".... ";
		String i = ".. ";
		String j = ".--- ";
		String k = "-.-/> ";
		String l = ".-.. ";
		String m = "-- ";
		String n = "-. ";
		String o = "--- ";
		String p = ".--. ";
		String q = "--.-/> ";
		String r = ".-. ";
		String s = "... ";
		String t = "- ";
		String u = "..- ";
		String v = "...- ";
		String w = ".-- ";
		String x = "-..- ";
		String y = "-.-/>- ";
		String z = "--.. ";
		String space = "| ";
		String code[] = { a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z };
		char A = 1;
		char B = 2;
		char C = 3;
		char D = 4;
		char E = 5;
		char F = 6;
		char G = 7;
		char H = 8;
		char I = 9;
		char J = 10;
		char K = 11;
		char L = 12;
		char M = 13;
		char N = 14;
		char O = 15;
		char P = 16;
		char Q = 17;
		char R = 18;
		char S = 19;
		char T = 20;
		char U = 21;
		char V = 22;
		char W = 23;
		char X = 24;
		char Y = 25;
		char Z = 26;
		for(int xyz = 0; xyz <= english.length(); ++xyz)
		{
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < alphabet.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(alphabet[variable].equals(english))
          		return code[variable];
          		continue;
   			}
   		}
   		return " ";
	}
	public static String morsetoEnglish(String morse)
	{
		String[] alphabet = {A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
		W, X, Y, Z, " ", "1", "2",
			"3", "4", "5", "7", "8", "9", "0"};
		String a = ".- ";
		String b = "-... ";
		String c = "-.-/>. ";
		String d = "-.. ";
		String e = ". ";
		String f = "..-. ";
		String g = "--. ";
		String h = ".... ";
		String i = ".. ";
		String j = ".--- ";
		String k = "-.-/> ";
		String l = ".-.. ";
		String m = "-- ";
		String n = "-. ";
		String o = "--- ";
		String p = ".--. ";
		String q = "--.-/> ";
		String r = ".-. ";
		String s = "... ";
		String t = "- ";
		String u = "..- ";
		String v = "...- ";
		String w = ".-- ";
		String x = "-..- ";
		String y = "-.-/>- ";
		String z = "--.. ";
		String space = "| ";
		String code[] = { a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z };
		char A = 1;
		char B = 2;
		char C = 3;
		char D = 4;
		char E = 5;
		char F = 6;
		char G = 7;
		char H = 8;
		char I = 9;
		char J = 10;
		char K = 11;
		char L = 12;
		char M = 13;
		char N = 14;
		char O = 15;
		char P = 16;
		char Q = 17;
		char R = 18;
		char S = 19;
		char T = 20;
		char U = 21;
		char V = 22;
		char W = 23;
		char X = 24;
		char Y = 25;
		char Z = 26;
		for (int xyz = 0; xyz < morse.length(); ++ xyz)
		{
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < code.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(code[variable].equals(morse))
       			return alphabet[variable];
       			continue;
   			}
   		}
   		return " "; 
	}
} 
      


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#4 pbl  Icon User is offline

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 07:53 AM

A lot lot complicated for nothing. Make it:

String alphabet = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890";
String[] morse = {".-", "-...", "-.-.",......

use the String class method charAt() to access the alphabet.length() arguments
when a match use that index to access your morse array
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#5 SillyLilly  Icon User is offline

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 08:25 AM

View Postpbl, on 28 August 2013 - 07:53 AM, said:

A lot lot complicated for nothing. Make it:

String alphabet = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890";
String[] morse = {".-", "-...", "-.-/>.",......

use the String class method charAt() to access the alphabet.length() arguments
when a match use that index to access your morse array

May you please explain more? I don't quite understand how it would work if alphabet, formerly an array, became simply a string.
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#6 jon.kiparsky  Icon User is online

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 08:50 AM

View PostSillyLilly, on 28 August 2013 - 09:03 AM, said:

Thanks for getting me out of the trap! So.... if I converted the chars to ints, the program would run and do all of the conversions? Maybe I did the wrong thing or not enough, but I tried to convert and had no more success in getting multiple english letters to converted to morse than before.



The idea is to get rid ot the array traverse completely, not to replace it with a different one. So the important thing to know here is that a char is just an integer that the compiler treats specially.

For example, you can cast a char to an int or store it in an int variable:

char a = 'a';
System.out.println((int)a);
int i = a;


The reason this helps you is, it's always more efficient to do arithmetic than to search. Arithmetic happens in constant time, searches take a finite time that depends on the search space. Scanning an array the way you're doing it takes on average l/2 operations, where l is the length of the array. So if you can reduce this problem to arithmetic, you've got a huge gain in performance, which is nice.

What's even nicer is that you have a simpler program that doesn't break as easily.

So the trick is to convert letters like 'A' and 'e' to numbers 0 and 4 respectively. I'm going to let you figure out how to do this: it's going to be a matter of simple arithmetic - subtraction, in fact.

It may be useful to know that you can refer to a char by its literal name in an arithmetic expression. So you can do something like this:
int q = 'A' +'B';  //q gets the value 131


Quote

May you please explain more? I don't quite understand how it would work if alphabet, formerly an array, became simply a string.


pbl is just being clever. This is actually a much better way to solve the problem, but you should try to understand the more direct approaches before you try to be clever.
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#7 pbl  Icon User is offline

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 09:03 AM

		String alphabet = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
		String[] morse = {	".-", "-...", "-.-/>.", "-..", ".", "..-.",
				"--.", "....", "..", ".---", "-.-/>", ".-..", "--",
				"-.", "---", ".--.", "--.-/>", ".-.", "...", "-",
				"..-", "...-", ".--", "-..-", "-.-/>-", "--.. "};

		String message = "This is a message";

		message = message.toUpperCase();
		for(int i = 0; i < message.length(); ++i) {
			char letter = message.charAt(i);
			if(letter == ' ') {
				System.out.print("   ");
				continue;
			}
			for(int j = 0; j < alphabet.length(); ++j) {
				if(alphabet.charAt(j) == letter) {
					System.out.print(morse[j] + " ");
					break;
				}
			}
		}
		System.out.println();


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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 09:44 AM

Thanks for the explanation jon! Thank you both of you for providing different paths to take to reach the goal of completion of this program!
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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 09:49 AM

The other solution is two Hashtable one of <Character><String> for text to Morse and one of <String><Character> for Morse to text conversion
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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 03:05 PM

The "clever" route is the one I took. I figured out the direct, more complex route, but I coded with the "clever" It works perfectly for english to morse but in morse to english, I get one error message:
project1.java:73: error: cannot find symbol
if(code.charAt(variable) == letter)
symbol: method charAt(int)
location: variable code of type String[]
Here's the code that I have now:
import java.util.Scanner;
import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;
public class Project1	{
	public static void main (String [] args)
	{
		int choice = 1;
		Scanner morseorenglish = new Scanner(System.in);
			System.out.println ("Choose either 1 or 2: (Type '1' for choice 1)");
			System.out.println ("(1) Translate your English sentence into morse code");
			System.out.println ("(2) Translate your morse code into an English sentence");
		choice = morseorenglish.nextInt();
		
		if (choice==1)
		{
			Scanner englishtomorse = new Scanner(System.in);
				System.out.println ("Please enter an original sentence in English.");
				String english = englishtomorse.nextLine();
			System.out.println (englishtoMorse(english));
		}
		else
		{
			Scanner morsetoenglish = new Scanner(System.in);
				System.out.println ("Please enter an original sentence in morse code.");
				String morse = morsetoenglish.nextLine();
			System.out.println (morsetoEnglish(morse));
			
		}
		
	}
	public static String englishtoMorse(String english) 
	{
		String alphabet = "ABC DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
		String code[] =  {".-", "-...", "-.-/>.", "|", "-..",".","..-.","--.", "....", 
			"..", ".---", "-.-/>", ".-..", "--","- .", "---", ".--.", "--.-/>", ".-.", 
			"...", "-", "..-", "...-", ".--", "-..-", "-.-/>-", "--.."};
		english = english.toUpperCase();
		for(int xyz = 0; xyz < english.length(); ++xyz)
		{
			char letter = english.charAt(xyz);
			if (letter == ' ')
			{
				System.out.print ("|");
				continue;
			}
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < alphabet.length(); ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(alphabet.charAt(variable) == letter)
       			{
       				System.out.print(code[variable] + " ");
       				break;
       			}
   			}
   		}
   		return " ";
	}
	public static String morsetoEnglish(String morse)
	{
		String alphabet = "ABC DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
		String code[] =  {".-", "-...", "-.-/>.", "|", "-..",".","..-.","--.", "....", 
			"..", ".---", "-.-/>", ".-..", "--","- .", "---", ".--.", "--.-/>", ".-.", 
			"...", "-", "..-", "...-", ".--", "-..-", "-.-/>-", "--.."};
		for(int xyz = 0; xyz < code.length; ++xyz)
		{
			char letter = morse.charAt(xyz);
			if (letter == '|')
			{
				System.out.print (" ");
				continue;
			}
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < code.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(code[variable] == letter)
       			{
       				System.out.print (alphabet.charAt(variable) + " ");
       				break;
       			}
   			}
   		}
   		return " "; 
	}
} 


What must I do to rid my program of this error?
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#11 jon.kiparsky  Icon User is online

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 04:11 PM

View PostSillyLilly, on 28 August 2013 - 05:05 PM, said:

The "clever" route is the one I took. I figured out the direct, more complex route, but I coded with the "clever"


You should be aware that pbl's method is actually the more complex of the two options - it looks simpler because you're relying on existing classes to do the work for you, but the work that's being done is a lot more involved.


Quote

project1.java:73: error: cannot find symbol
if(code.charAt(variable) == letter)
symbol: method charAt(int)
location: variable code of type String[]
Here's the code that I have now:



your variable code is an array of Strings, not a String. Arrays don't have a charAt method.

This post has been edited by jon.kiparsky: 28 August 2013 - 05:11 PM

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 04:50 PM

Trying to fix that, I made letter a String. Now I have another error.....wondering if there's an alternative to charAt().......the error:
project1.java:73: error: incomparable types: String and char
if(code[variable] == letter)
for(int xyz = 0; xyz < code.length; ++xyz)
		{
			String letter = morse.charAt(xyz);
			if (letter == "|")
			{
				System.out.print (" ");
				continue;
			}
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < code.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(code[variable] == letter)
       			{
       				System.out.print (alphabet.charAt(variable) + " ");
       				break;
       			}
   			}
   		}


I'm so sorry that I'm so confused on this one! I'm taking a class and have figured 90 % of everything out so far on my own (just one display problem a couple days ago)....I'm not incapable, but this one is really making my head spin. :)
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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 05:55 PM

a char is not a String, and cannot be equal to a String.
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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 28 August 2013 - 06:10 PM

you need equals() to compare String
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#15 SillyLilly  Icon User is offline

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Re: Morse Code Conversion Problems

Posted 29 August 2013 - 08:49 AM

I had never heard of the equals() method as a way to bridge that string-char gap! Thanks for helping this java beginner learn new things and ways to get around things. ;-) Now that everything compiles, still having some display problems. This (below) doesn't display any english from morse.
public static String morsetoEnglish(String morse)
	{
		String alphabet = "ABC DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
		String code[] =  {".-", "-...", "-.-/>/>.", "|", "-..",".","..-.","--.", "....", 
			"..", ".---", "-.-/>/>", ".-..", "--","-.", "---", ".--.", "--.-/>/>", ".-.", 
			"...", "-", "..-", "...-", ".--", "-..-", "-.-/>/>-", "--.."};
		for(int xyz = 0; xyz < code.length; ++xyz)
		{
			char letter = morse.charAt(xyz);
			if (letter == '|')
			{
				System.out.print (" ");
				continue;
			}
			
   			for(int variable = 0; variable < code.length; ++variable) 
   			{
       			if(code[variable].equals(letter))
       			{
       				System.out.print (alphabet.charAt(variable) + " ");
       				break;
       			}
   			}
   		}
   		return " "; 


So..... I tried something different coming from a slightly different angle (below). This gives the array out of bounds exception when I go to convert my morse into English. I am familiar with array out of bounds, but I'm not quite sure where this is coming from here.
public static String morsetoEnglish(String morse)
	{
		String code[] =  {".-", "-...", "-.-/>/>.", "|", "-..",".","..-.","--.", "....", 
			"..", ".---", "-.-/>/>", ".-..", "--","-.", "---", ".--.", "--.-/>/>", ".-.", 
			"...", "-", "..-", "...-", ".--", "-..-", "-.-/>/>-", "--.."};
		String alphabet[] = {"a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g", "h", "i", "j", "k", "l", "m",
			"n", "o", "p", "q", "r", "s", "t", "u", "v", "w", "x", "y", "z", " "};
          for (int i = 0; i < morse.length(); i++) {  
               char letter = Character.toUpperCase(morse.charAt(i));  
                  String word = code[letter = 'A'];  
                  System.out.print(alphabet[i]+".");  
               }
               return " ";  
               }


Please help me understand why things aren't displaying the right way!
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