Passing an array by reference in C?

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47 Replies - 2265 Views - Last Post: 09 October 2017 - 07:57 AM Rate Topic: -----

#31 thaus_15  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 04 September 2017 - 09:44 PM

Hi,

I am beginner of C/C++ programming language. Real fact, i don`t know how to use debugger in programming language. So learning programming language and debugger it takes more time :nottalkingtoyou:/> . Currently, i am running out of time in completing my project work. Forgive me :helpsmilie:/>

1. I am calling Two-dimensional array from main function into sub_functions. So i have used int (*h)[2].
2. Issue: SPADecoder(LLR, h, LLR_ret, L_ch, L_dec, y); FUNCTION, Not returning any result.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

#define COL 204
#define COL_P 2
#define ROWS_P 1020

int codecheck(int (*h)[2],int x[])
{
    int i,j,m,f; 
	int sum = 0;
	int y[COL];
    for (i=0;i<COL;i++)
	y[i]=0;
	m=1;
	f=-1;
	for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
	{
		for(j=0;j<COL_P;j++)
		{
			if(h[j][0]==m)
			{
				y[m]=y[m] + x[h[j][1]-1];
					f++;
			}
		}
		y[m]=y[m]%2;
		m=m+1;
		i=f+1;
	}

	for (i = 0; i < COL; ++i)
		{
			sum =sum+ y[i];
		}
	if (sum == 0)
		{
			return 1;
		}
	else
		{
			return -1;
		}

}

int codesum (int y[])
{
    int sum=0;
    for(int i=0;i<COL;i++)
        sum+=y[i];
    
    if(sum>0)
        return 0;
    else
        return 1;
}



int SPADecoder(double LLR[], int (*h)[2], double LLR_ret[], double L_ch[],  double L_dec[], int y[])
{

    double temp;
    int z;
    int i,j,k;
    for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
    {
        temp=1;
        for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
        {
            if(j!=i && h[j][0]==h[i][0])
            {
                temp=temp * tanhf(LLR[j]/2);
            }
        }
        LLR_ret[i] = log((1 + temp)/(1 - temp));     

        if(LLR_ret[i] > 40)
        {
            LLR_ret[i]=40;
        }
        else if(LLR_ret[i]<-40)
        {
            LLR_ret[i]=-40;
        }

    }

    for(i=0;i<COL;i++)							
    {
        L_dec[i]=L_ch[i];
    }


    for(i=1;i<COL+1;i++)						
    {
        for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
        {
            if(h[j][1]==i)
            {
                L_dec[i-1]=L_dec[i-1]+LLR_ret[j];
            }

        }

        if(L_dec[i-1]<=0)						
        {
            y[i-1]=1;
        }
        else
        {
            y[i-1]=0;
        }

    }


    z=codecheck(h,y); 

    if(z==1)								
    {
        return z;
    }
   
    for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
    {
        temp=0;
        for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
        {
            if(j!=i && h[j][1]==h[i][1])
            {
                temp=temp + LLR_ret[j];
                k=h[i][1];

            }
        }
        LLR[i] = temp+L_ch[k-1];
    }
return z;
}

int main()
{

	// flags and counters
    int z,i,j,N,k,ber_count,looping,t,sum;
    float d=1;
	float rate=0.5;

	int maxTransmissions=20,decoderIterations=10,maxErrors=50,errorsAccumulated=0;
	int y[COL];	
    int L,O,R,M=0;

	double var=0,snr;
	double temp; 								

    float noise[COL];
    double L_ch[COL],L_dec[COL];
	double LLR[ROWS_P],LLR_ret[ROWS_P];
	double BER[11];
    float snr_db[]={0,1,2,3,4};
    int snr_range=5,snr_count;
	int x[]={1,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,1};
    int  ret,row=0;
	double error_bits,error;
    int modulationScheme = 0,noOfSymbols=204;
    int h[ROWS_P][COL_P]={{1,1},{1,18},{1,27},{1,82},{1,102},{1,103},{1,130},{1,177},{1,190},{1,203},{2,2},{2,15},{2,75},{2,80},{2,86},{2,104},{2,121},{2,141},{2,144},{2,191},{3,3},{3,31},{3,32},{3,42},{3,101},{3,105},{3,153},{3,159},{3,178},{3,199},{4,4},{4,37},{4,71},{4,75},{4,85},{4,106},{4,111},{4,114},{4,127},{4,164},{5,5},{5,17},{5,42},{5,72},{5,87},{5,107},{5,141},{5,158},{5,193},{5,197},{6,4},{6,6},{6,17},{6,78},{6,102},{6,108},{6,162},{6,165},{6,167},{6,174},{7,7},{7,23},{7,73},{7,80},{7,83},{7,109},{7,118},{7,168},{7,177},{7,178},{8,8},{8,33},{8,37},{8,73},{8,100},{8,110},{8,156},{8,173},{8,192},{8,197},{9,9},{9,40},{9,41},{9,88},{9,92},{9,103},{9,111},{9,173},{9,181},{9,199},{10,10},{10,14},{10,23},{10,53},{10,93},{10,107},{10,112},{10,137},{10,167},{10,175},{11,11},{11,19},{11,26},{11,28},{11,88},{11,110},{11,113},{11,116},{11,170},{11,191},{12,1},{12,12},{12,25},{12,86},{12,97},{12,108},{12,114},{12,124},{12,161},{12,192},{13,4},{13,13},{13,33},{13,34},{13,50},{13,115},{13,137},{13,140},{13,146},{13,160},{14,14},{14,31},{14,40},{14,58},{14,95},{14,116},{14,121},{14,166},{14,174},{14,203},{15,15},{15,68},{15,70},{15,87},{15,101},{15,109},{15,113},{15,117},{15,165},{15,180},{16,4},{16,16},{16,59},{16,67},{16,92},{16,118},{16,125},{16,131},{16,138},{16,151},{17,15},{17,17},{17,44},{17,71},{17,73},{17,119},{17,161},{17,190},{17,194},{17,198},{18,18},{18,47},{18,62},{18,85},{18,93},{18,120},{18,122},{18,125},{18,146},{18,181},{19,19},{19,22},{19,23},{19,37},{19,57},{19,121},{19,126},{19,130},{19,131},{19,143},{20,1},{20,20},{20,50},{20,51},{20,99},{20,106},{20,122},{20,169},{20,179},{20,200},{21,21},{21,32},{21,62},{21,72},{21,98},{21,123},{21,126},{21,154},{21,168},{21,204},{22,22},{22,31},{22,44},{22,89},{22,98},{22,124},{22,141},{22,160},{22,169},{22,176},{23,23},{23,32},{23,61},{23,65},{23,99},{23,125},{23,132},{23,133},{23,147},{23,152},{24,16},{24,24},{24,42},{24,73},{24,77},{24,126},{24,142},{24,145},{24,146},{24,147},{25,5},{25,24},{25,25},{25,55},{25,67},{25,127},{25,133},{25,165},{25,178},{25,185},{26,10},{26,26},{26,27},{26,40},{26,85},{26,128},{26,147},{26,155},{26,160},{26,200},{27,22},{27,27},{27,42},{27,50},{27,74},{27,108},{27,129},{27,154},{27,170},{27,195},{28,2},{28,28},{28,63},{28,67},{28,94},{28,130},{28,150},{28,171},{28,187},{28,192},{29,29},{29,48},{29,69},{29,79},{29,90},{29,116},{29,131},{29,159},{29,176},{29,200},{30,7},{30,30},{30,53},{30,58},{30,94},{30,127},{30,132},{30,140},{30,162},{30,189},{31,29},{31,31},{31,64},{31,77},{31,94},{31,117},{31,133},{31,167},{31,183},{31,190},{32,20},{32,30},{32,32},{32,74},{32,78},{32,115},{32,134},{32,151},{32,181},{32,194},{33,11},{33,33},{33,47},{33,76},{33,81},{33,109},{33,135},{33,154},{33,155},{33,179},{34,2},{34,7},{34,34},{34,71},{34,76},{34,136},{34,138},{34,159},{34,182},{34,183},{35,27},{35,29},{35,35},{35,60},{35,86},{35,123},{35,137},{35,149},{35,166},{35,189},{36,17},{36,35},{36,36},{36,48},{36,100},{36,138},{36,139},{36,146},{36,163},{36,168},{37,5},{37,34},{37,37},{37,38},{37,69},{37,117},{37,139},{37,145},{37,169},{37,203},{38,38},{38,56},{38,76},{38,92},{38,101},{38,106},{38,123},{38,140},{38,161},{38,170},{39,39},{39,41},{39,60},{39,76},{39,78},{39,125},{39,141},{39,142},{39,175},{39,198},{40,2},{40,35},{40,40},{40,43},{40,93},{40,114},{40,135},{40,142},{40,148},{40,158},{41,1},{41,2},{41,13},{41,41},{41,59},{41,109},{41,119},{41,132},{41,143},{41,157},{42,11},{42,42},{42,43},{42,92},{42,95},{42,115},{42,117},{42,144},{42,156},{42,204},{43,7},{43,9},{43,43},{43,45},{43,56},{43,122},{43,145},{43,192},{43,194},{43,201},{44,10},{44,44},{44,75},{44,83},{44,95},{44,110},{44,135},{44,146},{44,157},{44,180},{45,45},{45,63},{45,79},{45,81},{45,97},{45,127},{45,139},{45,147},{45,148},{45,195},{46,34},{46,46},{46,61},{46,66},{46,77},{46,105},{46,144},{46,148},{46,197},{46,201},{47,14},{47,20},{47,46},{47,47},{47,83},{47,124},{47,128},{47,132},{47,149},{47,159},{48,8},{48,13},{48,26},{48,48},{48,62},{48,149},{48,150},{48,174},{48,193},{48,195},{49,15},{49,21},{49,25},{49,49},{49,51},{49,145},{49,149},{49,151},{49,177},{49,188},{50,8},{50,49},{50,50},{50,54},{50,89},{50,105},{50,126},{50,152},{50,164},{50,165},{51,43},{51,51},{51,66},{51,68},{51,91},{51,131},{51,133},{51,153},{51,187},{51,189},{52,1},{52,39},{52,45},{52,52},{52,54},{52,110},{52,140},{52,150},{52,154},{52,163},{53,8},{53,53},{53,60},{53,64},{53,90},{53,138},{53,155},{53,157},{53,194},{53,204},{54,12},{54,28},{54,54},{54,60},{54,82},{54,112},{54,139},{54,151},{54,156},{54,183},{55,3},{55,17},{55,37},{55,55},{55,99},{55,112},{55,148},{55,157},{55,172},{55,189},{56,20},{56,31},{56,56},{56,80},{56,91},{56,152},{56,156},{56,158},{56,162},{56,180},{57,28},{57,57},{57,66},{57,81},{57,89},{57,134},{57,137},{57,159},{57,172},{57,196},{58,5},{58,58},{58,70},{58,78},{58,91},{58,118},{58,149},{58,154},{58,160},{58,201},{59,18},{59,24},{59,59},{59,88},{59,96},{59,150},{59,152},{59,161},{59,179},{59,183},{60,21},{60,38},{60,55},{60,59},{60,60},{60,162},{60,176},{60,187},{60,190},{60,197},{61,61},{61,69},{61,74},{61,93},{61,101},{61,111},{61,128},{61,163},{61,193},{61,196},{62,6},{62,7},{62,35},{62,62},{62,96},{62,103},{62,113},{62,129},{62,164},{62,200},{63,16},{63,27},{63,44},{63,63},{63,88},{63,121},{63,134},{63,165},{63,175},{63,188},{64,4},{64,26},{64,64},{64,79},{64,84},{64,119},{64,134},{64,136},{64,166},{64,168},{65,12},{65,13},{65,52},{65,57},{65,65},{65,106},{65,138},{65,142},{65,167},{65,176},{66,24},{66,30},{66,52},{66,66},{66,102},{66,112},{66,117},{66,122},{66,135},{66,168},{67,6},{67,57},{67,67},{67,85},{67,97},{67,140},{67,169},{67,182},{67,184},{67,186},{68,6},{68,58},{68,68},{68,71},{68,90},{68,134},{68,143},{68,145},{68,152},{68,170},{69,54},{69,57},{69,59},{69,69},{69,77},{69,103},{69,104},{69,114},{69,136},{69,171},{70,19},{70,24},{70,56},{70,70},{70,100},{70,105},{70,114},{70,128},{70,129},{70,172},{71,14},{71,52},{71,63},{71,70},{71,71},{71,120},{71,169},{71,173},{71,178},{71,196},{72,11},{72,25},{72,39},{72,66},{72,72},{72,120},{72,130},{72,132},{72,174},{72,199},{73,48},{73,49},{73,64},{73,73},{73,98},{73,111},{73,175},{73,179},{73,201},{73,202},{74,9},{74,15},{74,58},{74,74},{74,84},{74,107},{74,120},{74,135},{74,164},{74,176},{75,28},{75,41},{75,70},{75,75},{75,96},{75,133},{75,155},{75,166},{75,177},{75,202},{76,26},{76,45},{76,65},{76,76},{76,94},{76,144},{76,158},{76,172},{76,178},{76,203},{77,10},{77,13},{77,77},{77,84},{77,87},{77,127},{77,151},{77,163},{77,179},{77,191},{78,49},{78,55},{78,65},{78,78},{78,90},{78,122},{78,130},{78,139},{78,180},{78,182},{79,33},{79,43},{79,67},{79,79},{79,99},{79,123},{79,141},{79,181},{79,188},{79,202},{80,18},{80,19},{80,35},{80,46},{80,80},{80,153},{80,167},{80,182},{80,188},{80,193},{81,9},{81,16},{81,36},{81,55},{81,81},{81,143},{81,160},{81,183},{81,186},{81,191},{82,10},{82,11},{82,79},{82,82},{82,96},{82,108},{82,111},{82,126},{82,172},{82,184},{83,12},{83,36},{83,69},{83,83},{83,87},{83,148},{83,174},{83,185},{83,202},{83,204},{84,45},{84,47},{84,48},{84,75},{84,84},{84,108},{84,123},{84,142},{84,153},{84,186},{85,9},{85,46},{85,53},{85,54},{85,85},{85,115},{85,121},{85,129},{85,177},{85,187},{86,22},{86,64},{86,83},{86,86},{86,91},{86,107},{86,116},{86,171},{86,188},{86,199},{87,8},{87,22},{87,61},{87,81},{87,87},{87,104},{87,120},{87,182},{87,189},{87,198},{88,32},{88,33},{88,39},{88,51},{88,88},{88,129},{88,143},{88,171},{88,180},{88,190},{89,3},{89,21},{89,52},{89,89},{89,100},{89,103},{89,109},{89,115},{89,125},{89,191},{90,20},{90,40},{90,44},{90,61},{90,90},{90,118},{90,137},{90,153},{90,184},{90,192},{91,6},{91,23},{91,29},{91,84},{91,91},{91,144},{91,155},{91,173},{91,185},{91,193},{92,14},{92,49},{92,72},{92,92},{92,102},{92,147},{92,171},{92,185},{92,186},{92,194},{93,5},{93,21},{93,29},{93,65},{93,93},{93,105},{93,110},{93,119},{93,184},{93,195},{94,39},{94,80},{94,82},{94,94},{94,98},{94,107},{94,113},{94,131},{94,166},{94,196},{95,30},{95,47},{95,50},{95,63},{95,95},{95,104},{95,118},{95,161},{95,163},{95,197},{96,25},{96,34},{96,56},{96,68},{96,96},{96,116},{96,181},{96,186},{96,196},{96,198},{97,36},{97,38},{97,46},{97,89},{97,97},{97,113},{97,136},{97,150},{97,157},{97,199},{98,3},{98,12},{98,18},{98,30},{98,98},{98,136},{98,170},{98,187},{98,198},{98,200},{99,53},{99,62},{99,74},{99,97},{99,99},{99,104},{99,119},{99,156},{99,185},{99,201},{100,16},{100,68},{100,82},{100,95},{100,100},{100,106},{100,124},{100,158},{100,195},{100,202},{101,19},{101,36},{101,41},{101,72},{101,101},{101,112},{101,124},{101,162},{101,164},{101,203},{102,3},{102,38},{102,51},{102,86},{102,102},{102,128},{102,173},{102,175},{102,184},{102,204}};


	printf("encoder \n");

	for (L = 0; L < 204; L++)
    {
      printf("%d",x[L]);
    }
    //printf(" \n Matrix \n");
/*for(M=0; M<ROWS_P; M++)
{
   loop for second dimension of array which is 4 in this example
     for(O=0;O<COL_P;O++)
     {
         printf("%d \t",h[M][O]);
     }
     printf("\n");
}*/

    for(snr_count=0;snr_count<snr_range;snr_count++)
	{
     
				snr=pow(10,(snr_db[snr_count]/10));

                 printf(" \n ModulationSchemeValue \n");

                 printf(" \n%d %d %f %f %f %d\n",modulationScheme,noOfSymbols, var, d,rate, snr);
				//ModulationSchemeValues (modulationScheme, noOfSymbols, var, d, rate, snr);  

                var=1/(2*rate*snr);
                noOfSymbols = COL;
                d=1;
                printf(" \n%d %d %f %f %f %d\n",modulationScheme,noOfSymbols, var, d,rate, snr);

                printf("\n");
        					// calulating noise variance from SNR
				BER[snr_count]=0;									
                N=0;
                errorsAccumulated=0;

                printf(" \n InitializeChannelLLR\n");
				while(errorsAccumulated<=maxErrors && N<=maxTransmissions)
				{
                        N++;

                        for(int i=0;i<noOfSymbols;i++)							// using randnoise function introducing noise to all zero codeword
                           {

                                x[M]=d;
                                noise[M]=(x[M])+0.8;
                                L_ch[M]= 2*noise[M]/var;
                                M++;

                            }


                       for(int M=0;M<ROWS_P;M++)
                           {

                               R=h[M][1]-1;
                               LLR[M]=L_ch[R];

                          }
                               printf(" %d",LLR[M]);
                       // InitializeChannelLLR( var, modulationScheme, noOfSymbols, x, noise,  L_ch, d, h, LLR);

                           for(looping=0;looping<decoderIterations;looping++)
						   {

                              z = SPADecoder(LLR, h, LLR_ret, L_ch, L_dec, y);

						   }

                          if(z==1)											

                          {

                             BER[snr_count]=BER[snr_count]+0;

                          }
                         else 												
                          {
                            error_bits=0;
                            for(i=0;i<COL;i++)
									{
										if(y[i]!=0)
										{
											error_bits++;

										}
									}
                            errorsAccumulated+=error_bits;
                            error=error_bits/(double)COL;
                            BER[snr_count]=BER[snr_count]+error;
                          }
                       if(N%300==0)
                           printf("iteration=%d \t errors accumulated=%d \n",N,errorsAccumulated);
                }

                    BER[snr_count]=BER[snr_count]/(double)N; 					
                    BER[snr_count]=BER[snr_count]/(double)N; 					
					printf("snr=%lf\tBER[%d]=%lf \n",snr_db[snr_count],snr_count,BER[snr_count]);

    }

    return 0;
}




What`s wrong in SPADecoder Function.
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#32 jimblumberg  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 05 September 2017 - 05:48 AM

Well it appears that your "SPADecoder Function" has some kind of endless loop. Since you don't seem to want to learn to use your debugger I would suggest you start putting some print statements in various parts of that function to see how far it gets into that function. However since you also don't seem to know how to use printf() you will probably have problems there as well as evidenced by the warnings your code should generate, so good luck.

main.c||In function ‘main’:|
main.c|210|warning: format ‘%d’ expects argument of type ‘int’, but argument 7 has type ‘double’ [-Wformat=]|
main.c|216|warning: format ‘%d’ expects argument of type ‘int’, but argument 7 has type ‘double’ [-Wformat=]|
main.c|230|warning: declaration of ‘i’ shadows a previous local [-Wshadow]|
main.c|161|note: shadowed declaration is here|
main.c|241|warning: declaration of ‘M’ shadows a previous local [-Wshadow]|
main.c|167|note: shadowed declaration is here|
main.c|248|warning: format ‘%d’ expects argument of type ‘int’, but argument 2 has type ‘double’ [-Wformat=]|
main.c|179|warning: unused variable ‘row’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|179|warning: unused variable ‘ret’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|170|warning: unused variable ‘temp’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|167|warning: unused variable ‘O’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|161|warning: unused variable ‘sum’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|161|warning: unused variable ‘t’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|161|warning: unused variable ‘ber_count’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|161|warning: unused variable ‘k’ [-Wunused-variable]|
main.c|161|warning: unused variable ‘j’ [-Wunused-variable]|


Jim
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#33 Skydiver  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 05 September 2017 - 06:20 PM

Lines 17-30 look suspicious. In particular line 29. What if f is never incremented on line 24?

Also the j indexer uses columns as its bounds, but it is used for row index on lines 21 and 23.
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#34 thaus_15  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 05 September 2017 - 10:06 PM

Thanks for your response.

#define ROWS 102  //k
#define COLS 204
Original H matrix is H[ROWS][COLS] =   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In below code, i have taken H matrix as a co-ordinate of position of 1`s from matrix H[102][204]. Therefore, H matrix is H[1020][2].

I have did some modification in the CODECheck Function. But facing same issue. Unable to print y value.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

#define COL 204
#define COL_P 2
#define ROWS_P 1020

int codecheck(int (*h)[2],int x[])
{
    int i,j,m,f; //flags
	int sum = 0;
	int y[COL];
    for (i=0;i<COL;i++)
	y[i]=0;
	m=1;
	f=-1;
	for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
	{
		for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
		{
			if(h[j][0]==m)
			{
				y[m]=y[m] + x[h[j][1]-1];
					f++;
			}
		}
		y[m]=y[m]%2;
		m=m+1;
		i=f+1;
	}
	for (i = 0; i < COL; ++i)
		{
			sum =sum+ y[i];
		}
	if (sum == 0)
		{
			return 1;
		}
	else
		{
			return -1;
		}
}

int codesum (int y[])
{
    int sum=0;
    for(int i=0;i<COL;i++)
        sum+=y[i];

    if(sum>0)
        return 0;
    else
        return 1;
}

void InitializeChannelLLR (double var, int modulationScheme, int noOfSymbols, int x[], float noise[], double L_ch[], float d, int (*h)[2], double LLR[])
{

    int j=0;   // temporary flags
    int k=0,t;
    for(int i=0;i<noOfSymbols;i++)							// using randnoise function introducing noise to all zero codeword
    {
            x[j]=d;
            noise[j]=(x[j])+0;
            L_ch[j]= 2*noise[j]/var;
            j++;
    }
    for(int j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
    {
        //cout<<"enter loop"<<endl;
        //cout<< "j="<<j<<endl;  //<<j<<"\t";
          t=h[j][1]-1;
          LLR[j]=L_ch[t];

    }

}

int SPADecoder(double LLR[], int (*h)[2], double LLR_ret[], double L_ch[],  double L_dec[], int y[],int x[])
{
    double temp;
    int i,j,k,z;
    for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
    {
        temp=1;
        for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
        {
            if(j!=i && h[j][0]==h[i][0])
            {
                temp=temp * tanhf(LLR[j]/2);
            }
        }
        LLR_ret[i] = log((1 + temp)/(1 - temp));

        if(LLR_ret[i] > 40)
        {
            LLR_ret[i]=40;
        }
        else if(LLR_ret[i]<-40)
        {
            LLR_ret[i]=-40;
        }
        printf("%f\n", LLR_ret[i]);
    }

    for(i=0;i<COL;i++)
    {
        L_dec[i]=L_ch[i];
    }

    for(i=1;i<COL+1;i++)
    {
        for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
        {
            if(h[j][1]==i)
            {
                L_dec[i-1]=L_dec[i-1]+LLR_ret[j];
            }
        }

        if(L_dec[i-1]<=0)
        {
            y[i-1]=1;
        }
        else
        {
            y[i-1]=0;
        }
    }
    z=codecheck(h,x);
    if(z==1)								// if decoded perfectly exit the deoding loop
    {
        return z;
    }
    for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
    {
        temp=0;
        for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
        {
            if(j!=i && h[j][1]==h[i][1])
            {
                temp=temp + LLR_ret[j];
                k=h[i][1];
            }
        }
        LLR[i] = temp+L_ch[k-1];
    }
    return z;
}

int main()
{

	// flags and counters
    int z,i,N,k,s,looping,t,sum;
    float d=1;
	float rate=0.5;
	int maxTransmissions=4000,decoderIterations=20,maxErrors=100,errorsAccumulated=0;
	int y[COL];	// iterations gives the maximum number of time the decoder is run for each value of SNR
    int L,O,R,M=0;
    double var=0,snr;
    float noise[COL];
    double L_ch[COL],L_dec[COL];
	double LLR[ROWS_P],LLR_ret[ROWS_P];
	double BER[11];
    float snr_db[]={0,1,2,3,4};
    int snr_range=1,snr_count;
	int x[]={1,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,1};
    double error_bits,error;
    int modulationScheme = 0,noOfSymbols=204;
    int h[ROWS_P][COL_P]={{1,1},{1,18},{1,27},{1,82},{1,102},{1,103},{1,130},{1,177},{1,190},{1,203},{2,2},{2,15},{2,75},{2,80},{2,86},{2,104},{2,121},{2,141},{2,144},{2,191},{3,3},{3,31},{3,32},{3,42},{3,101},{3,105},{3,153},{3,159},{3,178},{3,199},{4,4},{4,37},{4,71},{4,75},{4,85},{4,106},{4,111},{4,114},{4,127},{4,164},{5,5},{5,17},{5,42},{5,72},{5,87},{5,107},{5,141},{5,158},{5,193},{5,197},{6,4},{6,6},{6,17},{6,78},{6,102},{6,108},{6,162},{6,165},{6,167},{6,174},{7,7},{7,23},{7,73},{7,80},{7,83},{7,109},{7,118},{7,168},{7,177},{7,178},{8,8},{8,33},{8,37},{8,73},{8,100},{8,110},{8,156},{8,173},{8,192},{8,197},{9,9},{9,40},{9,41},{9,88},{9,92},{9,103},{9,111},{9,173},{9,181},{9,199},{10,10},{10,14},{10,23},{10,53},{10,93},{10,107},{10,112},{10,137},{10,167},{10,175},{11,11},{11,19},{11,26},{11,28},{11,88},{11,110},{11,113},{11,116},{11,170},{11,191},{12,1},{12,12},{12,25},{12,86},{12,97},{12,108},{12,114},{12,124},{12,161},{12,192},{13,4},{13,13},{13,33},{13,34},{13,50},{13,115},{13,137},{13,140},{13,146},{13,160},{14,14},{14,31},{14,40},{14,58},{14,95},{14,116},{14,121},{14,166},{14,174},{14,203},{15,15},{15,68},{15,70},{15,87},{15,101},{15,109},{15,113},{15,117},{15,165},{15,180},{16,4},{16,16},{16,59},{16,67},{16,92},{16,118},{16,125},{16,131},{16,138},{16,151},{17,15},{17,17},{17,44},{17,71},{17,73},{17,119},{17,161},{17,190},{17,194},{17,198},{18,18},{18,47},{18,62},{18,85},{18,93},{18,120},{18,122},{18,125},{18,146},{18,181},{19,19},{19,22},{19,23},{19,37},{19,57},{19,121},{19,126},{19,130},{19,131},{19,143},{20,1},{20,20},{20,50},{20,51},{20,99},{20,106},{20,122},{20,169},{20,179},{20,200},{21,21},{21,32},{21,62},{21,72},{21,98},{21,123},{21,126},{21,154},{21,168},{21,204},{22,22},{22,31},{22,44},{22,89},{22,98},{22,124},{22,141},{22,160},{22,169},{22,176},{23,23},{23,32},{23,61},{23,65},{23,99},{23,125},{23,132},{23,133},{23,147},{23,152},{24,16},{24,24},{24,42},{24,73},{24,77},{24,126},{24,142},{24,145},{24,146},{24,147},{25,5},{25,24},{25,25},{25,55},{25,67},{25,127},{25,133},{25,165},{25,178},{25,185},{26,10},{26,26},{26,27},{26,40},{26,85},{26,128},{26,147},{26,155},{26,160},{26,200},{27,22},{27,27},{27,42},{27,50},{27,74},{27,108},{27,129},{27,154},{27,170},{27,195},{28,2},{28,28},{28,63},{28,67},{28,94},{28,130},{28,150},{28,171},{28,187},{28,192},{29,29},{29,48},{29,69},{29,79},{29,90},{29,116},{29,131},{29,159},{29,176},{29,200},{30,7},{30,30},{30,53},{30,58},{30,94},{30,127},{30,132},{30,140},{30,162},{30,189},{31,29},{31,31},{31,64},{31,77},{31,94},{31,117},{31,133},{31,167},{31,183},{31,190},{32,20},{32,30},{32,32},{32,74},{32,78},{32,115},{32,134},{32,151},{32,181},{32,194},{33,11},{33,33},{33,47},{33,76},{33,81},{33,109},{33,135},{33,154},{33,155},{33,179},{34,2},{34,7},{34,34},{34,71},{34,76},{34,136},{34,138},{34,159},{34,182},{34,183},{35,27},{35,29},{35,35},{35,60},{35,86},{35,123},{35,137},{35,149},{35,166},{35,189},{36,17},{36,35},{36,36},{36,48},{36,100},{36,138},{36,139},{36,146},{36,163},{36,168},{37,5},{37,34},{37,37},{37,38},{37,69},{37,117},{37,139},{37,145},{37,169},{37,203},{38,38},{38,56},{38,76},{38,92},{38,101},{38,106},{38,123},{38,140},{38,161},{38,170},{39,39},{39,41},{39,60},{39,76},{39,78},{39,125},{39,141},{39,142},{39,175},{39,198},{40,2},{40,35},{40,40},{40,43},{40,93},{40,114},{40,135},{40,142},{40,148},{40,158},{41,1},{41,2},{41,13},{41,41},{41,59},{41,109},{41,119},{41,132},{41,143},{41,157},{42,11},{42,42},{42,43},{42,92},{42,95},{42,115},{42,117},{42,144},{42,156},{42,204},{43,7},{43,9},{43,43},{43,45},{43,56},{43,122},{43,145},{43,192},{43,194},{43,201},{44,10},{44,44},{44,75},{44,83},{44,95},{44,110},{44,135},{44,146},{44,157},{44,180},{45,45},{45,63},{45,79},{45,81},{45,97},{45,127},{45,139},{45,147},{45,148},{45,195},{46,34},{46,46},{46,61},{46,66},{46,77},{46,105},{46,144},{46,148},{46,197},{46,201},{47,14},{47,20},{47,46},{47,47},{47,83},{47,124},{47,128},{47,132},{47,149},{47,159},{48,8},{48,13},{48,26},{48,48},{48,62},{48,149},{48,150},{48,174},{48,193},{48,195},{49,15},{49,21},{49,25},{49,49},{49,51},{49,145},{49,149},{49,151},{49,177},{49,188},{50,8},{50,49},{50,50},{50,54},{50,89},{50,105},{50,126},{50,152},{50,164},{50,165},{51,43},{51,51},{51,66},{51,68},{51,91},{51,131},{51,133},{51,153},{51,187},{51,189},{52,1},{52,39},{52,45},{52,52},{52,54},{52,110},{52,140},{52,150},{52,154},{52,163},{53,8},{53,53},{53,60},{53,64},{53,90},{53,138},{53,155},{53,157},{53,194},{53,204},{54,12},{54,28},{54,54},{54,60},{54,82},{54,112},{54,139},{54,151},{54,156},{54,183},{55,3},{55,17},{55,37},{55,55},{55,99},{55,112},{55,148},{55,157},{55,172},{55,189},{56,20},{56,31},{56,56},{56,80},{56,91},{56,152},{56,156},{56,158},{56,162},{56,180},{57,28},{57,57},{57,66},{57,81},{57,89},{57,134},{57,137},{57,159},{57,172},{57,196},{58,5},{58,58},{58,70},{58,78},{58,91},{58,118},{58,149},{58,154},{58,160},{58,201},{59,18},{59,24},{59,59},{59,88},{59,96},{59,150},{59,152},{59,161},{59,179},{59,183},{60,21},{60,38},{60,55},{60,59},{60,60},{60,162},{60,176},{60,187},{60,190},{60,197},{61,61},{61,69},{61,74},{61,93},{61,101},{61,111},{61,128},{61,163},{61,193},{61,196},{62,6},{62,7},{62,35},{62,62},{62,96},{62,103},{62,113},{62,129},{62,164},{62,200},{63,16},{63,27},{63,44},{63,63},{63,88},{63,121},{63,134},{63,165},{63,175},{63,188},{64,4},{64,26},{64,64},{64,79},{64,84},{64,119},{64,134},{64,136},{64,166},{64,168},{65,12},{65,13},{65,52},{65,57},{65,65},{65,106},{65,138},{65,142},{65,167},{65,176},{66,24},{66,30},{66,52},{66,66},{66,102},{66,112},{66,117},{66,122},{66,135},{66,168},{67,6},{67,57},{67,67},{67,85},{67,97},{67,140},{67,169},{67,182},{67,184},{67,186},{68,6},{68,58},{68,68},{68,71},{68,90},{68,134},{68,143},{68,145},{68,152},{68,170},{69,54},{69,57},{69,59},{69,69},{69,77},{69,103},{69,104},{69,114},{69,136},{69,171},{70,19},{70,24},{70,56},{70,70},{70,100},{70,105},{70,114},{70,128},{70,129},{70,172},{71,14},{71,52},{71,63},{71,70},{71,71},{71,120},{71,169},{71,173},{71,178},{71,196},{72,11},{72,25},{72,39},{72,66},{72,72},{72,120},{72,130},{72,132},{72,174},{72,199},{73,48},{73,49},{73,64},{73,73},{73,98},{73,111},{73,175},{73,179},{73,201},{73,202},{74,9},{74,15},{74,58},{74,74},{74,84},{74,107},{74,120},{74,135},{74,164},{74,176},{75,28},{75,41},{75,70},{75,75},{75,96},{75,133},{75,155},{75,166},{75,177},{75,202},{76,26},{76,45},{76,65},{76,76},{76,94},{76,144},{76,158},{76,172},{76,178},{76,203},{77,10},{77,13},{77,77},{77,84},{77,87},{77,127},{77,151},{77,163},{77,179},{77,191},{78,49},{78,55},{78,65},{78,78},{78,90},{78,122},{78,130},{78,139},{78,180},{78,182},{79,33},{79,43},{79,67},{79,79},{79,99},{79,123},{79,141},{79,181},{79,188},{79,202},{80,18},{80,19},{80,35},{80,46},{80,80},{80,153},{80,167},{80,182},{80,188},{80,193},{81,9},{81,16},{81,36},{81,55},{81,81},{81,143},{81,160},{81,183},{81,186},{81,191},{82,10},{82,11},{82,79},{82,82},{82,96},{82,108},{82,111},{82,126},{82,172},{82,184},{83,12},{83,36},{83,69},{83,83},{83,87},{83,148},{83,174},{83,185},{83,202},{83,204},{84,45},{84,47},{84,48},{84,75},{84,84},{84,108},{84,123},{84,142},{84,153},{84,186},{85,9},{85,46},{85,53},{85,54},{85,85},{85,115},{85,121},{85,129},{85,177},{85,187},{86,22},{86,64},{86,83},{86,86},{86,91},{86,107},{86,116},{86,171},{86,188},{86,199},{87,8},{87,22},{87,61},{87,81},{87,87},{87,104},{87,120},{87,182},{87,189},{87,198},{88,32},{88,33},{88,39},{88,51},{88,88},{88,129},{88,143},{88,171},{88,180},{88,190},{89,3},{89,21},{89,52},{89,89},{89,100},{89,103},{89,109},{89,115},{89,125},{89,191},{90,20},{90,40},{90,44},{90,61},{90,90},{90,118},{90,137},{90,153},{90,184},{90,192},{91,6},{91,23},{91,29},{91,84},{91,91},{91,144},{91,155},{91,173},{91,185},{91,193},{92,14},{92,49},{92,72},{92,92},{92,102},{92,147},{92,171},{92,185},{92,186},{92,194},{93,5},{93,21},{93,29},{93,65},{93,93},{93,105},{93,110},{93,119},{93,184},{93,195},{94,39},{94,80},{94,82},{94,94},{94,98},{94,107},{94,113},{94,131},{94,166},{94,196},{95,30},{95,47},{95,50},{95,63},{95,95},{95,104},{95,118},{95,161},{95,163},{95,197},{96,25},{96,34},{96,56},{96,68},{96,96},{96,116},{96,181},{96,186},{96,196},{96,198},{97,36},{97,38},{97,46},{97,89},{97,97},{97,113},{97,136},{97,150},{97,157},{97,199},{98,3},{98,12},{98,18},{98,30},{98,98},{98,136},{98,170},{98,187},{98,198},{98,200},{99,53},{99,62},{99,74},{99,97},{99,99},{99,104},{99,119},{99,156},{99,185},{99,201},{100,16},{100,68},{100,82},{100,95},{100,100},{100,106},{100,124},{100,158},{100,195},{100,202},{101,19},{101,36},{101,41},{101,72},{101,101},{101,112},{101,124},{101,162},{101,164},{101,203},{102,3},{102,38},{102,51},{102,86},{102,102},{102,128},{102,173},{102,175},{102,184},{102,204}};

// encoder code word
	/*printf("encoder \n");
    for (L = 0; L < 204; L++)
    {
      printf("%d",x[L]);
    }
    printf("\n");*/
     for(snr_count=0;snr_count<snr_range;snr_count++)
        {
                snr=pow(10,(snr_db[snr_count]/10));
                var=1/(2*rate*snr);
                noOfSymbols = COL;
                d=1;
                N=0;
                BER[snr_count]=0;
                errorsAccumulated=0;
                printf(" snr=%f \t var=%f \t noOfSymbols=%d \t",snr,var,noOfSymbols);
				while(errorsAccumulated<=maxErrors && N<=maxTransmissions)
				{
                       /N++;
                InitializeChannelLLR(var, modulationScheme, noOfSymbols, x, noise,  L_ch, d, h, LLR);
                for(looping=0;looping<decoderIterations;looping++)
						{
                           z=SPADecoder(LLR, h, LLR_ret, L_ch, L_dec, y,x);
						}
				}
        }
      
    printf("Decoded Codeword \n");
    for (i = 0; i < COL; i++)
    {
      printf("%d",y[i]);
    }
    printf("\n");
return 0;
}

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#35 jimblumberg  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 06 September 2017 - 07:09 AM

Look at this snippet (be sure to read the comments).
  for (i=0;i<COL;i++)
	y[i]=0;
	m=1;
	f=-1;
	for(i=0;i<ROWS_P;i++)
	{
		for(j=0;j<ROWS_P;j++)
		{
			if(h[j][0]==m)
			{
				y[m]=y[m] + x[h[j][1]-1];
					f++;
			}
		}
		y[m]=y[m]%2;
		m=m+1;
		i=f+1; // This is probably wrong, changing the value of your loop control variable both in and out of your loop statement will probably cause problems.





Next you don't have a problem not printing y, you have a loop that never ends I suggest you debug your loops.

Jim
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#36 thaus_15  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 08 September 2017 - 02:54 AM

Hi,

I want to execute the codes without using randn function. Any suggestion welcome.

I need to execute only CASE 0 i.e. modulationScheme ==0

void ModulationSchemeValues (int &modulationScheme, int &noOfSymbols, double &var, float &d, int &col, float &rate, double &snr)
{
	            switch (modulationScheme)
            {
                case 0:
                    //cout<<"case 0"<<endl;
                    var=1/(2*rate*snr);
                    noOfSymbols = col;
                    d=1;
                    break;
                case 1:
                    //cout<<"case 1"<<endl;
                    var=1/(4*rate*snr);
                    noOfSymbols = col/2;
                    d=1/sqrt(2);
                    break;
                case 2:
                    //cout<<"case 2"<<endl;
                    var=1/(8*rate*snr);
                    noOfSymbols = col/4;
                    d=1/sqrt(10);
                default:
                    var=1/(2*rate*snr);
                    noOfSymbols = col;
                    d=1;
                    break;
            }
}

void InitializeChannelLLR (double &var, int &modulationScheme, int &noOfSymbols, float x[], double noise[], double L_ch[], float &d, int &rows_p, vector<vector <int>> &h, double LLR[])
{
    random_device rd;
    mt19937 generator (rd());
    normal_distribution<double> dist(0.0, var);
    int j=0;   // temporary flags
   int k=0,t;
    for(int i=0;i<noOfSymbols;i++)							// using randnoise function introducing noise to all zero codeword
    {
        if(modulationScheme==0)
        {
            x[j]=d;
            noise[j]=(x[j])+dist(generator);
            L_ch[j]= 2*noise[j]/var;
            j++;
        }
        else if(modulationScheme==1)
        {
            x[j] = d;
            j++;
            x[j] = d;
            j++;
            noise[j-2]=(x[j-2])+dist(generator);

            L_ch[j-2]= 2*noise[j-2]/var;
            noise[j-1]=(x[j-1])+dist(generator);
            L_ch[j-1]= 2*noise[j-1]/var;
        }
        else if(modulationScheme==2)
        {

            x[j] = 3*d;                                 // initialize to zero codeword
            noise[j] = (x[j]) + dist(generator);
            j++;
            x[j] = 3*d;                                 // initialize to zero codeword
            noise[j] = (x[j]) + dist(generator);
            j++;


            //Finding out LLR

            if(noise[j-2] >= (2*d))
                L_ch[k] = (8*noise[j-2]*d/(2*var)) - (8*pow(d,2)/(2*var));
            else if(noise[j-2] >= -2*d && noise[j-2] <= 2*d)
                L_ch[k] = 4*noise[j-2]*d/(2*var);
            else if(noise[j-2] <= -2*d)
                L_ch[k] = (8*noise[j-2]*d/(2*var)) + (8*pow(d,2)/(2*var));
            k++;

            if(noise[j-1] >= (2*d))
                L_ch[k] = (8*noise[j-1]*d/(2*var)) - (8*pow(d,2)/(2*var));
            else if(noise[j-1] >= -2*d && noise[j-1] <= 2*d)
                L_ch[k] = 4*noise[j-1]*d/(2*var);
            else if(noise[j-1] <=- 2*d)
                L_ch[k] = (8*noise[j-1]*d/(2*var)) + (8*pow(d,2)/(2*var));
            k++;

            if(noise[j-2] >= 0)
                L_ch[k] = (-8*pow(d,2)/(2*var)) + (4*noise[j-2]*d/(2*var));
            else
                L_ch[k] = (-8*pow(d,2)/(2*var)) - (4*noise[j-2]*d/(2*var));
            k++;

            if(noise[j-1] >= 0)
                L_ch[k] = (-8*pow(d,2)/(2*var)) + (4*noise[j-1]*d/(2*var));
            else
                L_ch[k] = (-8*pow(d,2)/(2*var)) - (4*noise[j-1]*d/(2*var));
            k++;
        }

    }


    for(int j=0;j<rows_p;j++)
    {
        //cout<<"enter loop"<<endl;
        //cout<< "j="<<j<<endl;  //<<j<<"\t";
        t=h[j][1]-1;
        LLR[j]=L_ch[t];
    }
    //cout<<"L_ch initialize done \n";

}

This post has been edited by thaus_15: 08 September 2017 - 02:55 AM

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#37 Skydiver  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 08 September 2017 - 09:10 AM

Please don't open new topics about an existing code base that you are discussing. Merging threads...

Wait... You need to introduce noise, but you don't want to use a random function. Isn't noise by definition random data? So what do you want to do inplace of random data?
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#38 thaus_15  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 19 September 2017 - 02:22 AM

Hi,

While compiling below codes, i am getting incorrect. I need to get output for sys_matrix[i][j]). Please point out my error.

sys_matrix[i][j] should be matrix of size102x204

#define ROWS 102  //k
#define COLS 204  //n
int main()
{

//Assumptions, c = n-k . And k = n/2 ie c = k , ie half rate codes

int i,j,sum=0,k,r2,j2,i2;

int r,c,n;
int temp=0;
static int sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS],Generator[ROWS][COLS], dout[COLS];



//Initiations. Comment this after troubleshoots
k = ROWS;
r = ROWS;
c = COLS;
n = COLS;
int msg[ROWS] = {1,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,0};
int H[ROWS][COLS] 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int count = 0;
int n1[COLS];

for(i=0;i<n-k;i++)  
{
    j=n-k+i;  
        if(H[i][j] != 1) 
        {
            for(i2=i+1;i2<r;i2++)
            {
                if(H[i2][j] == 1) //Finding a ROW with 1 in optimal position
                {
                    for(j2=0;j2<c;j2++)  //Row  exchange between i and i2.
                    {
                        temp = H[i2][j2];
                        H[i2][j2] = H[i][j2];
                        H[i][j2] = temp;
                    }
                    break;
                }
                if(i2 == r-1)
                    printf("\nERROR..!! The whole of column %d has NO 1(at row %d)",j+1,i+1);
            }
        }
        for(i2 = 0;i2<r;i2++)  //Making the elements below and above the diagonal as '1'
        {
            if(i2 != i && H[i2][j] == 1) //Finding a ROW with 1 below or the diagonal 1, and NOT changing the diagonal 1.
                {
                    for(j2=0;j2<c;j2++)  //Row  exchange between i and i2.
                    {
                        H[i2][j2] = abs(H[i][j2] - H[i2][j2]); //For modulo 2 subtraction in the row below
                    }
                }
        }
}
printf("\nH Matrix in different form is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<ROWS;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<COLS;j++)
        sys_matrix[i][j]=H[i][j];
    printf("%d",sys_matrix[i][j]);
    printf("\n");
}

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#39 Skydiver  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 19 September 2017 - 05:24 AM

Are you getting a compilation error? Are you getting any warning? If so, please post those.

If you are not getting any errors or warning while compiling. Tell us what runtime behavior you are seeing. What behavior were you expecting to see?

In general, just dumping code on people and saying something is not working is not a good way to ask a question. You need to tell us what you have tried and what you have done to try to resolve the problem. How to ask questions the smart way
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#40 jimblumberg  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 19 September 2017 - 08:03 AM

Why did you open a new topic for this existing problem?

Jim
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#41 Skydiver  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 19 September 2017 - 09:32 AM

*sigh* Merging threads again...
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#42 thaus_15  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 06 October 2017 - 12:29 AM

Hi,



I have written C codes with multiple FOR LOOPS for implementation of a FPGA . Now, my problems, my codes take lot of LUTs. So i need to optimize the C codes for implementation of a FPGA.Please help me
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define ROWS 102  //k
#define COLS 204  //n
int main()
{

//Assumptions, c = n-k . And k = n/2 ie c = k , ie half rate codes

int i,j,sum=0,k,r2,j2,i2;

int r,c,n;
int temp=0;




//Initiations. Comment this after troubleshoots
k = ROWS;
r = ROWS;
c = COLS;
n = COLS;
int msg[ROWS] = {0,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,1};
int H[ROWS][COLS] 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int count = 0;
int n1[COLS];

/*printf("H Matrix is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<ROWS;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<COLS;j++)
        printf("%d",H[i][j]);
    printf("\n");
}

for(i=0;i<COLS;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<ROWS;j++)
        if(H[j][i] == 1)
            count++;
    n1[i] = count;
    count = 0;
}
printf("\n1 count is Matrix is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<COLS;i++)
    printf("%d",n1[i]);*/

for(i=0;i<n-k;i++)  // Limit of i loop restricted to make a square matrix in the second half, it n-k. The square I matrix will be of size n-k.
{
    j=n-k+i;  //Need to do the algorithm centred along the diagonal elements only. So no need of a j loop.
        if(H[i][j] != 1) //Checking the diagonal element second half of the H matrix for 1. If not 1, then exchange the row to get 1.
        {
            for(i2=i+1;i2<r;i2++)
            {
                if(H[i2][j] == 1) //Finding a ROW with 1 in optimal position
                {
                    for(j2=0;j2<c;j2++)  //Row  exchange between i and i2.
                    {
                        temp = H[i2][j2];
                        H[i2][j2] = H[i][j2];
                        H[i][j2] = temp;
                    }
                    break;
                }
                if(i2 == r-1)
                    printf("\nERROR..!! The whole of column %d has NO 1(at row %d)",j+1,i+1);
            }
        }
        for(i2 = 0;i2<r;i2++)  //Making the elements below and above the diagonal as '1'
        {
            if(i2 != i && H[i2][j] == 1) //Finding a ROW with 1 below or the diagonal 1, and NOT changing the diagonal 1.
                {
                    for(j2=0;j2<c;j2++)  //Row  exchange between i and i2.
                    {
                        H[i2][j2] = abs(H[i][j2] - H[i2][j2]); //For modulo 2 subtraction in the row below
                    }
                }
        }
}
printf("\nH Matrix in different form is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<ROWS;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<COLS;j++)
        printf("%d",H[i][j]);
    printf("\n");
}


//Building G. G is k x n sized. I inside G will be of size k x k (square it is)
printf("\n\nGenerator Matrix\n\n");

int G[ROWS][COLS] = {0};
for (i=0;i<k;i++)       // I matrix generation
    for(j=0;j<k;j++)
        if(i == j)
        G[i][j] = 1;

for(i=0;i<r;i++)
    for(j=0;j<k;j++)
        G[j][k+i] = H[i][j];

for(i=0;i<ROWS;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<COLS;j++)
        printf("%d",G[i][j]);
    printf("\n");
}

//Code word generation
int C[ROWS];
int s = 0;
for(j=0;j<n;j++)
{
    for(i=0;i<k;i++)
    {
        s = s+msg[i]*G[i][j];
    }
    C[j] = s%2;
    s = 0;
}
printf("\n\nCode Word is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
    printf("%d",C[i]);
}



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#43 jimblumberg  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 06 October 2017 - 07:27 AM

Really? You want someone to try to help you optimize a program that has array overflows happening in several places, horrible non-meaningful variable names. Multiple single letter names that appear to have the same values as your #defined constants, why not just use the #defined constants and make the program easier to read?

Edit: not to mention the fact that you haven't even explained the purpose of the program.


Good luck.


Jim

This post has been edited by jimblumberg: 06 October 2017 - 07:31 AM

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#44 Skydiver  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 06 October 2017 - 07:56 AM

Merging into existing thread...
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#45 thaus_15  Icon User is offline

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Re: Passing an array by reference in C?

Posted 08 October 2017 - 11:27 PM

Two-D array :Say I define a 2-d array function in the file Encoder.h, and I want to call it from the file encoder.c, how would I accomplish this ? I am getting lot of warning message. How to get rid off ?

HEADER SOURCE CODE

#ifndef _ENCODER_H_
#define _ENCODER_H

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>


#define ROWS 102
#define COLS 204

int systematicmatric(int sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS])
{
	int i,j,k,j2,i2;
    int r,c,n;
	int temp=0;

	  k = r = ROWS;
	  c = n = COLS;
static int H[102][204] = 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for(i=0;i<n-k;i++)
{
    j=n-k+i;
        if(H[i][j] != 1)
        {
            for(i2=i+1;i2<r;i2++)
            {
                if(H[i2][j] == 1)
                {
                    for(j2=0;j2<c;j2++)  //Row  exchange between i and i2.
                    {
                        temp = H[i2][j2];
                        H[i2][j2] = H[i][j2];
                        H[i][j2] = temp;
                    }
                    break;
                }

            }
        }
        for(i2 = 0;i2<r;i2++)  //Making the elements below and above the diagonal as '1'
        {
            if(i2 != i && H[i2][j] == 1) //Finding a ROW with 1 below or the diagonal 1, and NOT changing the diagonal 1.
                {
                    for(j2=0;j2<c;j2++)  //Row  exchange between i and i2.
                    {
                        H[i2][j2] = abs(H[i][j2] - H[i2][j2]); //For modulo 2 subtraction in the row below
                    }
                }
        }
}
//printf("\nH Matrix in different form is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<r;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<c;j++)
    	sys_matrix[i][j]=H[i][j];
//        printf("%d\t",H[i][j]);

}
return sys_matrix;
}

#endif


Main function

void Encoder(int msg[ROWS], int dout[COLS])
{


	int Generator[ROWS][COLS];
	int sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS];
	int G[ROWS][COLS] = {0};
	int (*result)[204];
	int i,j,k,j2,i2;
	    int r,c,n;
		int temp=0;

		  k = r = ROWS;
		  c = n = COLS;
		  int C[COLS];
		  int s = 0;

		 result = systematicmatric(sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS]);
//printf("\n\nGenerator Matrix\n\n");


for (i=0;i<k;i++)
    for(j=0;j<k;j++)
        if(i == j)
        G[i][j] = 1;

for(i=0;i<r;i++)
    for(j=0;j<k;j++)
        G[j][k+i] = result[i][j];

for(i=0;i<r;i++)
{
    for(j=0;j<c;j++)
    	Generator[i][j]=G[i][j];

}

//Code word generation

for(j=0;j<n;j++)
{
    for(i=0;i<k;i++)
    {
        s = s+msg[i]*Generator[i][j];
    }
    C[j] = s%2;
    s = 0;
}
//printf("\n\nCode Word is: \n\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
	dout[i]=C[i];
}



Warning messages
In file included from encoder.c:1:
./encoder.h:64:8: warning: incompatible pointer to integer conversion returning 'int (*)[204]' from a function with result type 'int' [-Wint-conversion]
return sys_matrix;
       ^~~~~~~~~~
encoder.c:24:30: warning: incompatible integer to pointer conversion passing 'int' to parameter of type 'int (*)[204]' [-Wint-conversion]
                 result = systematicmatric(sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS]);
                                           ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
./encoder.h:12:26: note: passing argument to parameter 'sys_matrix' here
int systematicmatric(int sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS])
                         ^
encoder.c:24:11: warning: incompatible integer to pointer conversion assigning to 'int (*)[204]' from 'int' [-Wint-conversion]
                 result = systematicmatric(sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS]);
                        ^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
encoder.c:24:30: warning: array index 204 is past the end of the array (which contains 204 elements) [-Warray-bounds]
                 result = systematicmatric(sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS]);
                                           ^                ~~~~
encoder.c:12:2: note: array 'sys_matrix' declared here
        int sys_matrix[ROWS][COLS];
        ^
4 warnings generated.


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