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Quick Grand Unification Overview

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There once was a thought of a unification of all four fundamental forces (unified field theory, grand unification, theory of everything, whatever, whatever…). Well, there still is; there are plenty of theories, however there are, I’ll say Three big boys (but there are plenty of others just as credible) that have my attention:

-String Theory (M Theory or ST)
-Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG)
-Moving Dimensions Theory (MTD)

OK, there are theories, but what are they theorizing?

Obviously, there are four fundamental forces in nature, a gravitational force, an electromagnetic force, and a strong and weak nuclear force.

-Gravitational force is the most commonly “understood” of the four among people today, but the ironic twist to it is, even though more people are aware of it, nobody really understands it (if they do they have not been able to devise a mathematical projection that is widely accepted among the scientific community as acceptable under quantum and Newtonian degrees). Gravitational forces are simply forces that interact between matter.

-Electromagnetic force is a force that we come across quite often and provides a link between electric and magnetic forces by means of a similar constant and like attractions of charged or magnetic widgets (particles, poles, whatever).

-Weak Nuclear can get a little extra confusing in terms of just the definition but simply it’s just neutrinos, as of right now we consider them to be uncharged, nearly massless fundamental particles that are so small they’re virtually undetectable (I’m getting involved in a project in Soudan, Minnesota that is building a neutrino trap) however they are so abundant they are what dark matter is thought to be comprised of therefore they are so great in numbers that they comprise of most of the matter in the universe. Anyway, the neutrinos have interactions with fundamental particles that cause them to radioactively decay. The process is mediated by fundamental particles, called bosons, that spin (please don’t confuse spin with classical spinning involving angular momentum).

-Strong Nuclear force is the force regarding interactions of the fundamental particles that bind protons to other fundamental particles (other protons and neutrons), primarily the quark; these interactions are adjudicated by gluons.

Since all interactions in nature involve one or more of these processes, obviously, understanding a connection between all of these will allow scientists to understand things that aren’t obvious or capable of being mathematically understood. Some of these difficulties are:

-Why protons and electrons have the charges they do, as well as why their charges are of the exact same magnitude.

-We can learn more about the history and purpose of neutrinos and what their role is in the universe. In terms of neutrinos we can also understand why they’re nearly massless and what causes their strict abundance. With the understanding of neutrinos, this allows us to understand whether the universe will continue to expand, why it is expanding on a more exact degree, which will also let us understand if the universe will ever experience a big crunch (a big contraction, opposite of Big Bang is considered realistically impossible at this point, but the understanding over neutrinos would help affirm current theories).

-Off of the other ideas, a unification of the four fundamental forces will allow for an explanation of physical particles that are indeed lighter than the proton because everything experiences decay over time, it is wondered what particles comprise of a proton.

-They can explain the lack of antimatter in the universe. As you may know, when the Big Bang occurred and matter was created, every bit of matter that was created also had an opposite matter called antimatter. Every particle has a corresponding antiparticle in the universe and when matter and antimatter comes into contact, an annihilation occurs. An annihilation is simply a way of expressing Einstein’s E=mc^2 equation, since mass and energy are directly proportional relative to the constant being the square of the speed of light, the mass of the matter and antimatter when annihilated will produce the exact corresponding energy as a result.

The point of all those partial explanations is that a grand unification will allow for an understanding in found interrelationships of amazing things that are occurring in the universe, but are mathematically impossible to understand or conceptually too disorganized to make sense of. They also allow for discoveries of new ways every force in the universe can be interconnected allowing for new discoveries in science and cosmology.

Since a unified field theory allows for the understanding that corresponds to ALL matter (and therefore everything in the universe since both matter and energy have a fairly simplistic relationship with one another if you sum them up with their respective inefficiencies).

What is:
String Theory.

String Theory is a possible explanation, and is indeed one of the most popular among people in the modern age because of all the hype the media is giving it, for the interconnection between gravity and electromagnetism, which obviously dictates that it unifies all four forces.

The theory suggests that in the most simplistic terms, all the matter in the universe can be understood as one-dimensional “strings” of energy vibrating around that, in certain situations and under certain configurations can form particles of matter.

A downside to the theory, however, is that it requires the presence of 11-dimensions instead of the currently perceived four dimensions (three special-dimensions and one temporal dimension, remember that the temporal dimension should not be understood as time even though in concept they are analogous to one another). This produces a problem because there is no proof of any other dimensions being present. If other dimensions were present, there would be deviations between matter i.e. deviations in terms of the universal gravitational constant as gravitons will then be interacting between more than three dimensions (there should at least be some variation which there is currently no proof for). I have already explained the significance of the universal gravitational constant in my first post because, since there are three dimensions, points in the universe can be seen as a sphere which, spacially, produces a 1/r^2 relationship, which has yet to be violated experimentally.

The theory has its upsides, the first is that it provides extraordinary ease in terms of mathematics with regards to unifying the four forces which allows for an understanding of many interactions between matter in the universe that were before too difficult to comprehend or derive calculations for.

To counter that, string theory opponents claim that it’s fine and dandy because it provides fantastic theoretical proof however none of it can be experimentally verified. There is talk that a string theory experiment proved successful not too long ago (some time late last year).


Number 813 #2, February 27, 2006 by Phil Schewe, Ben Stein, and Davide Castelvecchi

String Theory Explains RHIC Jet Suppression

String theory argues that all matter is composed of string-like shreds in a 10-dimensional hyperspace assembled in various forms. It has won acclaim from many who appreciate the theory's elegant mathematics and ambition to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity, and skepticism from others who cite the theory's lack of a practical track record. String theory, the doubters say, makes no testable predictions.

But this isn't exactly true. Indeed, the theory has not yet been experimentally vindicated in the realm of quantum gravity, but has been put into play in the realm of high-energy ion collisions, the kind carried out at Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A few years ago string practitioners attempted to establish a relationship between the 10-dimensional string world and the 4-dimensional (3 spatial dimensions plus time) world in which we observe interactions among quark-filled particles like protons (for background, see Physics Today, May 2005).

This duality between string theory and the theory of the strong nuclear force, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), was recently used to interpret puzzling early results from RHIC, namely the suppression of energetic quark jets that should have emerged from the fireball formed when two heavy nuclei (such as gold) collide head on. The thinking was that perhaps the plasma of quarks and gluons (quarks bursting free from their customary proton and meson groupings) wasn't a gas of weakly interacting particles (as was originally thought) but a gas of strongly interacting particles, so strong that any energetic quarks that might have escaped the fireball (initiating a secondary avalanche, or jet, or quarks) would quickly be slowed and stripped of energy on its way through the tumultuous quark-gluon plasma (QGP) environment.

Two new papers by Hong Liu and Krishna Rajagopal of (MIT) and Urs Wiedemann (CERN) address this problem. The first paper calculates a specific quark-suppression parameter (namely, how much the quarks, each attached to a string dangling "downward" into a fifth dimension, are pushed around as they traverse the quark-gluon plasma) that agrees closely with the experimentally observed value.

Rajagopal ([email protected], 617-253-6202) says that in the second paper, the same authors make a specific testable prediction using string theory that bears not just on missing jets of energetic light quarks (up, down, and strange quarks), but on the melting or dissociation temperatures of bound states of heavy quarks (charm-anticharm or bottom-antibottom pairs) moving through the quark-gluon plasma with sufficiently high velocity, as will be produced in future experiments at RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN.

----Found at:

There still is no accepted understanding of that fifth dimension and how it mathematically doesn’t congregate with other laws of physics such as the inverse square law.

My opinion with string theory is that it provides plenty of concepts that should be taken seriously as well as mathematics that can prove useful in physics as we know it, but should not be taken as a grain of salt because of its fallacies and ridiculous assumptions. However, I don’t want to go straight up and say that it’s bullshit because, obviously nobody knows it, but we will have to wait until next year with the creation of the extremely powerful Hadron Collider. This will allow people to do experiments with energy levels sufficiently high enough to actually allow for a possible experimental unification in the fundamental forces allowing for a realistic test in the equations brought forth by theories today.

I’m going to get into Moving Dimensions Theory and Quantum Loop Theory later because, come on, this is already six pages or so, and I plan on getting into more detail with them. What you have read here is a basic introduction with what’s goin’ down and a quick overview of string theory which in my opinion is too erroneous to support.

Actually quick edit, there is also this professor that gave a two hour presentation at the University of Minnesota a little while back and he claimed to have successfully, with experimental proof being present, unified all four theories in terms of math and physical experimental proof. He hasn't finished his papers and basically doubled over on affirming his own findings, but it is quite amazing actually and I will keep you all updated on his findings too. I'll have to get his name from my professor because it escapes me right now.

3 Comments On This Entry

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Nova Dragoon 

04 March 2007 - 04:07 PM
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05 March 2007 - 05:12 PM
I thought there was some big deal about the unification of the weak force and the electromagnetic force as essentially the same thing, hence the electroweak force.


05 March 2007 - 05:14 PM

Nova Dragoon, on 4 Mar, 2007 - 05:07 PM, said:

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Videege, on 5 Mar, 2007 - 06:12 PM, said:

I thought there was some big deal about the unification of the weak force and the electromagnetic force as essentially the same thing, hence the electroweak force.

we've been able to calculate connections between all of the forces except for gravity. nobody understands what mass is therefore, gravity being the interaction between mass, we don't understand what gravity is (or vice versa, depends what mindset you're into thinking about) that's why it's important to get that understanding, or to find that unification of gravity so we can find an understanding of mass or the other way around

string theory is able to unify them all mathematically but by doing so we have to make a lot of assumptions that are entirely untestable, most importantly the presense of many dimensions that are "invisible" or "perpendicular" to real spacial planes. my mind could never conceive how there can be spacial verses perpendicular to three dimensions and if there were, again, the square law would be altered in some way and the universal gravitational constant wouldn't be 6.67x10^-11

edit: edited for videege's comment.
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